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Abstract

This study examines the directional accuracy of Singapore’s macroeconomic forecasts by professional forecasters, government agencies (i.e., central bank and Ministry of Trade and Industry, MTI), and international organizations. The results show that government agencies provide the most directionally accurate forecasts, suggesting that the macroeconomic and monetary policies are effective. Current-year forecasts are generally directionally accurate, with disparities among forecasters for next-year forecasts. Regarding GDP growth, the MTI and International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide directionally accurate forecasts up to four quarters ahead, whereas other forecasters provide them for at most three quarters ahead. For Consumer Price Index inflation, except for the IMF, all others provide directionally accurate forecasts up to four quarters ahead.

Abstract

A multi-regional dynamic computable general equilibrium model is constructed in this paper to explore the macroeconomic effects of international oil price shocks and RMB exchange rate changes on China. The results show that (1) in terms of regional development differences, the decrease in international oil prices and depreciation of RMB are both conducive to economic growth, although the impact of RMB devaluation is more obvious. Increases in international oil prices will further widen the output gap between the rich and the poor regions, whereas oil price decreases and RMB devaluation will narrow the regional development differences. (2) In terms of employment, the depreciation of the exchange rate and the decline in international oil prices will help increase the employment rate in most regions, but oil price hikes will be most beneficial for improving oil industry employment in the northeast. (3) The impact of oil price volatility is asymmetric. Compared with rising oil prices, falling oil prices have significantly greater effects on GDP, industrial output, employment and other aspects. Furthermore, the impacts of exchange rate fluctuations and oil price changes on the regional economy exhibit a time lag.