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Abstract

This study examines the directional accuracy of Singapore’s macroeconomic forecasts by professional forecasters, government agencies (i.e., central bank and Ministry of Trade and Industry, MTI), and international organizations. The results show that government agencies provide the most directionally accurate forecasts, suggesting that the macroeconomic and monetary policies are effective. Current-year forecasts are generally directionally accurate, with disparities among forecasters for next-year forecasts. Regarding GDP growth, the MTI and International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide directionally accurate forecasts up to four quarters ahead, whereas other forecasters provide them for at most three quarters ahead. For Consumer Price Index inflation, except for the IMF, all others provide directionally accurate forecasts up to four quarters ahead.

Abstract

This paper examines asymmetry of the loss function of professional forecasters for output growth, inflation, and exchange rate forecasts, based on the survey of professional forecasts (SPF) data of three South Asian countries (India, Indonesia, and Singapore). Our results provide India’s unbiased output growth forecasts and under-predicted inflation and exchange rate forecasts; Indonesia’s broadly unbiased forecasts; and Singapore’s under-predicted output growth forecasts and unbiased inflation and exchange rate forecasts. Testing the rationality of all three countries’ SPF forecasts, we find that all are rational under an asymmetric loss function but not under a symmetric loss function.